- Learn Russian         
Learn Arabic Learn Spanish Learn French Learn Italian Learn Russian Learn German Learn Japanese

Home      Alphabet      Verbs      Cases      Nouns      Russian 101 Phrases      Vocabulary      Expressions

 



Learn Russian (русский язык)

Russian Grammar

Alphabet

Numbers

Verbs

Cases

Nouns

Adjectives

Interrogative/ Negation

Learn Russian with Free Daily Podcasts

Vocabulary & Writings

Russian 101 Phrases

Vocabulary

Russian Expressions

Write a Russian Letter

Russian Test (.PDF)

How to Learn a Language

 

More will be available soon

 

Nominative, Accusative, Genitive, Dative, Instrumental and Prepositional:

 

Like German and some other languages, Russian has something called cases, basically they’re changes that occur to nouns and their endings, to show what role they’re playing in a sentence. There are 6 cases in Russian: nominative, accusative, genitive, dative, instrumental, and prepositional.

Before going into details let’s review them very quickly:

 

Russian Cases (Nominative, Accusative, Genitive, Dative, Instrumental and Prepositional)

The nominative case answers the questions "who?/what?". The Russian Nominative is the basic form found in dictionaries for nouns.

The accusative case designates the object of an action. (I speak Russian)

The genitive case refers to things belonging to other people. Just like when you use (of) or (the possessive ‘s)

The dative case refers to things given or addressed to a person (object). (give it to me…)

The instrumental case is used to refer to an instrument that helps to make something.

The prepositional case is used after the prepositions “о” (about), “в” (in), “на” (at) to refer to a place

Russian Nominative Case

The Russian nominative case answers the questions "who? what?” (I speak Russian, Russia is a nice country) the blue font shows the position of the Russian nominative case. It’s considered the easiest case.

The Russian Nominative is the basic form that you will find in dictionaries for nouns. The nominative case is used for the subject of the sentence. It’s the basic case and also the easiest, the only changes required are for the plural (add the letters “и”, “ы”, “я” or “а”).

Russian Accusative Case

 

The accusative designates the object of an action. (I speak Russian, He speaks it too). The blue front shows the position of the accusative case. Sometimes the accusative case looks exactly like the nominative case, but not always. To form the accusative from nominative you need to be familiar with the changes occurring to the nominative:

 

Russian Accusative Case

For a masculine noun:

For a feminine noun:

When the noun in inanimate, no change is necessary.
When the noun is animate and ends with a consonant, add “а”.
When the noun is animate, replace “ь”, add “я”.

When the noun is animate, replace “й”, with “я”.

Replace “а” with “у”.

Replace “я” with “ю”.

 

 

For a neuter noun: since all neuter nouns are inanimate no change will occur, they stay the same.

Russian Genitive Case

The genitive refers to things (people) belonging to other things (other people). Just like when you use (of) or (the possessive ‘s). In Russian the possessor always follows the object possessed, while in English it may be both, (the story of Edward, or Edward’s story).

Russian Genitive Case

For a masculine noun:

For a feminine noun:

For a neuter noun:

for nouns ending in a consonant add “а”.

replace “ь”, add “я”.
replace “й”, with “я”.

replace “а” with “ы”.

replace “я” with “и”.

replace “ь” with “и”.

replace “о” with “а”.

replace “е” with “я”.

 

 

The Russian genitive usually answers the question (of whom? Кого?/ of what? Чего? Whose…?... чья?) 

 

Это автомобиль чья? (whose car is this?)

Это автомобиль Надя (that's Nadia's car./ That's the car of Nadia)

 

The Russian genitive is also associated (not always) with some prepositions and verbs like:

 

Prepositions associated with the Russian genitive

Russian Verbs

без,

для,

до,

из,

without,

for,

up to,

from,

 из-за,

кроме,

на,

с, со,

because of,

except for,

on,

with,

у,

недалеко от,

позади,

at,

near to,

behind,

 ждать,

достигать,

желать

просить,

хотеть

wait,

reach,

wish,

ask,

want

 

 

Russian Dative Case


The Russian dative case is used as the indirect object of a sentence. “Peter is teaching Russian to
John”, John is the indirect object and therefore takes the dative case, and it usually answers the question as (to whom? Кому? / for what? Чему?).

 

Russian Dative Case

For a masculine noun:

For a feminine noun:

For a neuter noun:

for nouns ending with a consonant, add “у”.

replace “ь”, add “ю”.
replace “й”, with “ю”.

replace “а” with “е”.

replace “ь” with “и”.
replace “я” with “е”.

replace “о” with “у”
replace “е” with “ю”

 

The Russian dative case is also associated with some verbs and prepositions:

 

Prepositions associated with the Russian Dative

Russian Verbs (dative)

к,

по,

 

to,

on,

подобно,

согласно,

similarly to,

according to,

благодаря,

вопреки,

owing to,

contrary to,

Давать

Помогать

give,

help,

Советоват

Нравиться

advise,

like,

 

Russian Instrumental Case

 

In general the Russian instrumental case is used to indicate how something is done or the means by which an action is carried out, usually in English it’s expressed by the prepositions "by, with".  I learn Russian with books, and I practice it by chatting,

 

Russian Instrumental Case

For a masculine noun

For a feminine noun

neuter noun

- for nouns ending with “ж”, “ш”, “щ”, “ц”, “ч” add “ем” if unstressed, if stressed add “ом”.
- for other consonants, add “ом”.

- replace “ь”, add “ем”, if stressed “ём”.

- replace “й”, with “ем”, if stressed “ём”.

- for stems of nouns end with “ж”, “ш”, “щ”, “ц”, “ч”  replace “а” with “ей”
- for the rest replace “а” with “ой”

- replace “ь” with “ью”.

- replace “я” with “ей”, if stressed “ёй”.

simply add “м”

 

Some Instrumental prepositions

с(о) + Instrument

with

Над + Instrument

above

Между + Instrument

between

Перед + Instrument

in front of

 

The Russian instrumental case is used after prepositions like c (with), между (between), над (above), перед (in front of), под (under) … for example:

 

 

Russian Prepositional Case

 

The Russian prepositional case is used after the prepositions “о” (about), “в” (in), “на” (at). Nouns take the prepositional case when they’re used to refer to a place, or time... (these prepositions are used sometimes with other cases). The nouns answering the question "where" are often used with the prepositions в and на.

 

Russian Prepositional Case

For a masculine noun:

For a feminine noun:

For a neuter noun:

- simply add “е”

- replace “а” with “е”.
- replace “ь” with “и”.

- replace “я” with “е”.

- replace “о” with “е”.

- no need to replace “е” if it’s ending the word.

 

 

 

Russian Noun Case Endings

 

 

Russian Masculine Noun Case Endings

 

Nominative Case

--

ы

Accusative Case

--

--

--

--

--

--

Dative Case

-ам

-ям

-ям

Genitive Case

-ов

-ев

-ей

Prepositional Case

-ах

-ях

-ях

Instrumental Case

-ом

-ами

-ем

-ями

-ем

-ями

 

Russian Feminine Noun Case Endings:

 

Nominative Case

-ия

-ии

Accusative Case

--

--

-ию

--

--

Dative Case

-ам

-ям

-ии

-иям

-ям

Genitive Case

--

-ии

-ий

-ей

Prepositional Case

-ах

-ях

-ии

-иях

-ях

Instrumental Case

-ой

-ами

-ей

-ями

-ией

-иями

-ью

-ями

 

Russian Neutral Noun Case Endings

 

Nominative Case

-ие

-ия

Accusative Case

-ие

-ия

Dative Case

-ам

-ям

-ию

-иям

Genitive Case

--

-ии

-ий

Prepositional Case

-ах

-ях

-ии

-иях

Instrumental Case

-ом

-ами

-ем

-ями

-ием

-иями

 

 

Speak7 2013 © speak7.com   admin@speak7.com

 

Russian Cases, Nominative Case, Accusative Case, Russian Genitive Case, Dative Case, Russian Instrumental Case and Prepositional Case.

 

 

Privacy Policy